πŸ€‘ Nicotine - Wikipedia

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Nicotine is a widely-used stimulant and potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid that is naturally produced in the nightshade family of plants. It is used for smoking​.


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Nicotine is a chemical that contains nitrogen, which is made by several types of plants, including the tobacco plant. It is also produced.


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Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant.


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Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant.


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Nicotine is a dangerous and highly addictive chemical. It can cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, flow of blood to the heart and a narrowing of the.


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Tobacco contains a chemical called nicotine. Nicotine is an addictive substance. Millions of people in the United States have been able to quit.


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Nicotine is a dangerous and highly addictive chemical. It can cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, flow of blood to the heart and a narrowing of the.


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Nicotine is a highly addictive chemical found in the tobacco plant. The addiction is physical, meaning habitual users come to crave the chemical, and also mental​.


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Nicotine is a chemical that contains nitrogen, which is made by several types of plants, including the tobacco plant. It is also produced.


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Nicotine is a chemical that contains nitrogen, which is made by several types of plants, including the tobacco plant. It is also produced.


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Top: this depicts the initial effects of high dose exposure to an addictive drug on gene expression in the nucleus accumbens for various Fos family proteins i. Others consider the dietary intake to be negligible unless inordinately large amounts of specific vegetables are consumed. It is used for smoking cessation to relieve withdrawal symptoms. Nicotine is optically active , having two enantiomeric forms. Though tobacco smoking is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease , [] there is evidence that nicotine itself has the potential to prevent and treat Alzheimer's disease. Nicotine was often compared to caffeine in advertisements in the s by the tobacco industry, and later in the s by the electronic cigarettes industry, in an effort to reduce the stigmatization and the public perception of the risks associated with nicotine use. This is followed by a condensation with glyceraldehydephosphate and a cyclization catalyzed by quinolinate synthase QS to give quinolinic acid. Biosynthesis begins with decarboxylation of ornithine by ornithine decarboxylase ODC to produce putrescine. In the European Union, the minimum age to purchase nicotine products is However, there is no minimum age requirement to use tobacco or nicotine products. Several in vitro studies have investigated the potential effects of nicotine on a range of oral cells. Main article: Nicotine poisoning.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} IUPAC name. Nicotine was originally isolated from the tobacco plant in by chemists Wilhelm Heinrich Posselt and Karl Ludwig Reimann from Germany , who believed it was a poison. This occurs most commonly in young, inexperienced tobacco harvesters who do not consume tobacco. This section needs expansion with: [1]. As nicotine enters the body, it is distributed quickly through the bloodstream and crosses the bloodβ€”brain barrier reaching the brain within 10β€”20 seconds after inhalation. The biosynthetic pathway of nicotine involves a coupling reaction between the two cyclic structures that comprise nicotine. Nicotine use for tobacco cessation has few contraindications. Nicotine is a hygroscopic , colorless to yellow-brown, oily liquid, that is readily soluble in alcohol, ether or light petroleum. In some anti-smoking literature, the harm that tobacco smoking and nicotine addiction does is personified as Nick O'Teen, represented as a humanoid with some aspect of a cigarette or cigarette butt about him or his clothes and hat. A photoactivatable form of nicotine, which releases nicotine when exposed to ultraviolet light with certain conditions, has been developed for studying nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in brain tissue. The current agreed theory involves the conversion of niacin into 2,5-dihydropyridine through 3,6-dihydronicotinic acid. This was due to the availability of other insecticides that are cheaper and less harmful to mammals. Nicotine may not be harmless, [62] but it is safer than inhaled tobacco smoke. Nicotine has been used as an insecticide since at least the s, in the form of tobacco extracts [36] although other components of tobacco also seem to have pesticide effects. Nicotine-containing products are sometimes used for the performance-enhancing effects of nicotine on cognition. Nicotine can be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning or to facilitate a medicolegal death investigation. The amount of nicotine absorbed by the body from smoking can depend on many factors, including the types of tobacco, whether the smoke is inhaled, and whether a filter is used. This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources , specifically: the second paragraph of this section includes citations to primary medical sources; these need to be replaced with reviews like this one. Tobacco was introduced to Europe in , and by the late 17th century, it was used not only for smoking but also as an insecticide. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Nicotine is a widely-used stimulant and potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid that is naturally produced in the nightshade family of plants. The reaction now proceeds via the NAD salvage cycle to produce niacin via the conversion of nicotinamide by the enzyme nicotinamidase. Combining nicotine patch use with a faster acting nicotine replacement, like gum or spray, improves the odds of treatment success. The release of epinephrine adrenaline causes an increase in heart rate , blood pressure and respiration , as well as higher blood glucose levels. The amounts of nicotine of in tomatoes lowers substantially as the fruit ripens. A recent systematic review concluded that nicotine was unlikely to be cytotoxic to oral cells in vitro in most physiological conditions but further research is needed. Acetylcholine released by preganglionic sympathetic fibers of these nerves acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, causing the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream. Other primary metabolites include nicotine N' -oxide, nornicotine, nicotine isomethonium ion, 2-hydroxynicotine and nicotine glucuronide. However, it has been found that the nicotine yield of individual products has only a small effect 4. The nicotine content of popular American-brand cigarettes has increased over time, and one study found that there was an average increase of 1. Nicotine exposure in utero is responsible for several complications of pregnancy and birth: pregnant women who smoke are at greater risk for both miscarriage and stillbirth and infants exposed to nicotine in utero tend to have lower birth weights. In dependent smokers, withdrawal causes impairments in memory and attention, and smoking during withdrawal returns these cognitive abilities to pre-withdrawal levels. Nicotine and cigarette smoke both induce the expression of liver enzymes e. Nicotine also promotes cancer growth by stimulating angiogenesis and neovascularization. January This section needs expansion with: [61] [2] [3]. Nicotine use as a tool for quitting smoking has a good safety history. Urinary or salivary cotinine concentrations are frequently measured for the purposes of pre-employment and health insurance medical screening programs. In some states [ where? Nicotine has been shown to produce birth defects in some animal species, but not others; [31] consequently, it is considered to be a possible teratogen in humans. You can help by adding to it. Smoking is associated with a decreased risk of Parkinson's Disease; however, it is unknown whether this is due to people with healthier brain dopaminergic reward centers the area of the brain affected by Parkinson's being more likely to enjoy smoking and thus pick up the habit, nicotine directly acting as a neuroprotective agent, or other compounds in cigarette smoke acting as neuroprotective agents. The common side effects from nicotine exposure are listed in the table below. Nicotine is used as a recreational drug. By binding to ganglion type nicotinic receptors in the adrenal medulla, nicotine increases flow of adrenaline epinephrine , a stimulating hormone and neurotransmitter. Although studies conclude some form of coupling between the two component structures, the definite process and mechanism remains undetermined. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Smoking was believed to protect against illness, particularly the plague. Nicotine decreases hunger and food consumption. This article is about the chemical. Glucuronidation and oxidative metabolism of nicotine to cotinine are both inhibited by menthol , an additive to mentholated cigarettes , thus increasing the half-life of nicotine in vivo. Pod mod electronic cigarettes use nicotine in the form of a protonated nicotine , rather than free-base nicotine found in earlier generations. Low levels of nicotine stimulate cell proliferation, while high levels are cytotoxic. Nicotine is highly addictive. In nicotine-producing plants, nicotine functions as an antiherbivory chemical ; consequently, nicotine has been widely used as an insecticide , [44] [15] and neonicotinoids , such as imidacloprid , are widely used. In the United States, nicotine products and Nicotine Replacement Therapy products like Nicotrol are only available to persons 21 and above; proof of age is required; not for sale in vending machine or from any source where proof of age cannot be verified. Although nicotine does not cause cancer in humans, [86] it is unclear whether it functions as a tumor promoter as of [update]. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Normal between-cigarettes discontinuation, in unrestricted smokers, causes mild but measurable nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Calcium triggers the exocytosis of chromaffin granules and thus the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream. Rotschy in Nicotine is named after the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum , which in turn is named after the French ambassador in Portugal , Jean Nicot de Villemain , who sent tobacco and seeds to Paris in , presented to the French King, [] and who promoted their medicinal use. Today nicotine is less commonly used in agricultural insecticides , which was a main source of poisoning. Nicotine can be highly addictive , [16] [17] [18] depending on how it is used. See also: Nicotine withdrawal and Smoking cessation. The initial symptoms of a nicotine overdose typically include nausea , vomiting, diarrhea, hypersalivation , abdominal pain, tachycardia rapid heart rate , hypertension high blood pressure , tachypnea rapid breathing , headache, dizziness, pallor pale skin , auditory or visual disturbances, and perspiration, followed shortly after by marked bradycardia slow heart rate , bradypnea slow breathing , and hypotension low blood pressure. After World War II , over 2, tons of nicotine insecticide were used worldwide, but by the s the use of nicotine insecticide had declined below tons. The US Food and Drug Administration FDA stated in that there are no significant safety concerns associated with the use of more than one form of over-the-counter OTC nicotine replacement therapy at the same time, or using OTC NRT at the same time as another nicotine-containing product, like cigarettes. It is unlikely that a person would overdose on nicotine through smoking alone. More recent cases of poisoning typically appear to be in the form of Green Tobacco Sickness , [31] accidental ingestion of tobacco or tobacco products , or ingestion of nicotine-containing plants. Nicotine also activates the sympathetic nervous system , [] acting via splanchnic nerves to the adrenal medulla, stimulating the release of epinephrine. Quinolinic acid then reacts with phosphoriboxyl pyrophosphate catalyzed by quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase QPT to form niacin mononucleotide NaMN. For other uses, see Nicotine disambiguation. Careful interpretation of results is important, since passive exposure to cigarette smoke can result in significant accumulation of nicotine, followed by the appearance of its metabolites in various body fluids. Serious adverse events due to the use of nicotine replacement therapy are extremely rare. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In contrast to recreational nicotine products, which have been designed to maximize the likelihood of addiction, nicotine replacement products NRTs are designed to minimize addictiveness. A major metabolite is cotinine. The primary therapeutic use of nicotine is treating nicotine dependence to eliminate smoking and the damage it does to health. Main article: Nicotine replacement therapy. A Cochrane review found that, in rare cases, nicotine replacement therapy can cause non- ischemic chest pain i. Nicotine constitutes approximately 0. It is not known whether nicotine replacement therapy is effective for smoking cessation in adolescents, as of Nicotine gum is contraindicated in individuals with temporomandibular joint disease. By binding to the receptors, it causes cell depolarization and an influx of calcium through voltage-gated calcium channels. Nicotine is a natural product of tobacco, occurring in the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum in a range of 0. Interactive image. Nicotine reduces the amount of rapid eye movement REM sleep, slow-wave sleep SWS , and total sleep time in healthy nonsmokers given nicotine via a transdermal patch , and the reduction is dose-dependent.